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Từ điển Oxford Advanced Learner 8th
hold



hold [hold holds held holding] verb, noun BrE [həʊld] NAmE [hoʊld]
verb (held, heldBrE [held] ; NAmE [held] ) 
 
IN HAND/ARMS
1. transitive ~ sb/sth (+ adv./prep.) to carry sth; to have sb/sth in your hand, arms, etc
She was holding a large box.
I held the mouse by its tail.
The girl held her father's hand tightly.
He was holding the baby in his arms.
The winning captain held the trophy in the air.
We were holding hands (= holding each other's hands).
The lovers held each other close.
2. transitive ~ sth to put your hand on part of your body, usually because it hurts
She groaned and held her head.  
 
IN POSITION
3. transitive to keep sb/sth in a particular position
~ sth (+ adv./prep.) Hold your head up.
Hold this position for a count of 10.
The wood is held in position by a clamp.
I had to hold my stomach in (= pull the muscles flat) to zip up my jeans.
~ sth + adj. I'll hold the door open for you.  
 
SUPPORT
4. transitive ~ sb/sth to support the weight of sb/sth
I don't think that branch will hold your weight.  
 
CONTAIN
5. transitive ~ sb/sth to have enough space for sth/sb; to contain sth/sb
This barrel holds 25 litres.
The plane holds about 300 passengers.  
 
SB PRISONER
6. transitive to keep sb and not allow them to leave
~ sb Police are holding two men in connection with last Thursday's bank raid.
~ sb + noun He was held prisoner for two years.  
 
CONTROL
7. transitive ~ sth to defend sth against attack; to have control of sth
The rebels held the radio station.  
 
REMAIN
8. intransitive to remain strong and safe or in position
They were afraid the dam wouldn't hold.
9. intransitive to remain the same
How long will the fine weather hold?
If their luck holds, they could still win the championship.  
 
KEEP
10. transitive ~ sth to keep sb's attention or interest
There wasn't much in the museum to hold my attention.
11. transitive ~ sth (at sth) to keep sth at the same level, rate, speed, etc
Hold your speed at 70.
Interest rates have been held at 8% for a year now.
12. transitive ~ sth to keep sth so that it can be used later
records held on computer
Our solicitor holds our wills.
We can hold your reservation for three days.  
 
OWN
13. transitive ~ sth (rather formal)to own or have sth
Employees hold 30% of the shares.  
 
JOB
14. transitive ~ sth to have a particular job or position
How long has he held office?
Mrs Thatcher held the post of Prime Minister longer than anyone else last century.  
 
RECORD/TITLE
15. transitive ~ sth to have sth you have gained or achieved
Who holds the world record for the long jump?
She held the title of world champion for three years.  
 
OPINION
16. transitive to have a belief or an opinion about sb/sth
~ sth He holds strange views on education.
~ sb/sth + adv./prep./adj. She is held in high regard by her students (= they have a high opinion of her).
firmly-held beliefs
17. transitive (formal)to consider that sth is true
~ that… I still hold that the government's economic policies are mistaken.
~ sb/sth + adj. Parents will be held responsible for their children's behaviour.
be held to be sth These vases are held to be the finest examples of Greek art.  
 
MEETING
18. transitive, usually passive ~ sth to have a meeting, competition, conversation, etc
The meeting will be held in the community centre.
It's impossible to hold a conversation with all this noise.
The country is holding its first free elections for 20 years.  
 
ROAD/COURSE
19. transitive ~ the road (of a vehicle)to be in close contact with the road and easy to control, especially when driven fast
20. transitive ~ a course (of a ship or an aircraft)to continue to move in a particular direction  
 
IN MUSIC
21. transitive ~ sth to make a note continue for a particular time  
 
ON TELEPHONE
22. intransitive, transitive to wait until you can speak to the person you have telephoned
That extension is busy right now. Can you hold?
~ the line She asked me to hold the line.  
 
STOP
23. transitive ~ sth used to tell sb to stop doing sth or not to do sth
Hold your fire! (= don't shoot)
Hold the front page! (= don't print it until a particular piece of news is available)
• (NAmE, informal)Give me a hot dog, but hold the (= don't give me any) mustard.
Rem: Most idioms containing hold are at the entries for the nouns and adjectives in the idioms, for example hold the fort is at fort.
Verb forms:

Word Origin:
v. and n. senses 1 to 4 Old English haldan healdan Germanic Dutch houden German halten Old Norse hald ‘hold, support, custody’ n. sense 5 late 16th cent. holl Old English hol holian Germanic Dutch hol ‘cave’ ‘hollow’ German hohl ‘hollow’ Indo-European ‘cover, conceal’ -d ↑hold

Thesaurus:
hold verb
1. T
He held the baby gently in his arms.
clutch • • grip • • hold on/hold onto sb/sth • • grasp • • cling • • hang on • • handle • |written clasp
Opp: drop, Opp: release, Opp: let go of sth
hold/clutch/grip/clasp sth in your hand/hands/arms
hold/clutch/grip/hold on to/grasp/cling/hang on to/clasp sb/sth by/with sth
hold/clutch/grip/grasp/hang/clasp on to sth
hold/clutch/grip/hold onto/grasp/cling on to/clasp sb's hand
2. T
Careful, that branch won't hold your weight!
support • • hold sb/sth up • • bear • • carry • • prop sth up
hold/support/bear/carry the weight of sb/sth
Hold or bear? Bear is more formal and can also be used figuratively:
• (figurative) He seemed unable to bear the weight of his responsibility.
 ✗ He seemed unable to hold the weight of his responsibility.
3. T
He was held prisoner for two years.
send sb to prison • • intern • • detain • • imprison • |informal lock sb up/away • |formal incarcerate • |especially journalism jail
Opp: release
hold/send to prison/intern/lock up/detain/imprison/jail sb for sth
hold/lock up/detain/imprison/incarcerate sb in sth
hold/detain/imprison/jail sb without trial/charge
4. T
Your personal records are held on computer.
keep • • store • |formal retain
hold/keep/store/retain information/data
hold/keep a record/records
still/no longer hold/keep/store/retain sth
5. T, often passive
The conference was held in Oregon.
have • • host • • give • • call • |informal throw • |formal convene
hold/have/host/give/call/convene a conference
hold/have/call/convene a meeting
hold/have/host/give/throw a party
hold/have a conversation/debate/discussion

Synonyms:
hold
hold on • cling • clutch • grip • grasp • clasp • hang on
These words all mean to have sb/sth in your hands or arms.
hold • to have sb/sth in your hand or arms: She was holding a large box. I held the baby gently in my arms.
hold on (to sb/sth) • to continue to hold sb/sth; to put your hand on sb/sth and not take your hand away: Hold on and don't let go until I say so.
cling • to hold on to sb/sth tightly, especially with your whole body: Survivors clung to pieces of floating debris.
clutch • to hold sb/sth tightly, especially in your hand; to take hold of sth suddenly: She stood there, the flowers still clutched in her hand. He felt himself slipping and clutched at a branch.
grip • to hold on to sth very tightly with your hand: Grip the rope as tightly as you can.
grasp • to take hold of sth firmly: He grasped my hand and shook it warmly.
The object of grasp is often sb's hand or wrist.
clasp • (formal) to hold sb/sth tightly in your hand or in your arms: They clasped hands (= held each other's hands) . She clasped the children in her arms.
The object of clasp is often your hands, sb else's hand or another person.
hang on (to sth) • to hold on to sth very tightly, especially in order to support yourself or stop yourself from falling: Hang on tight. We're off!
to hold/clutch/grip/clasp sth in your hand/hands
to hold/catch/clasp sb/sth in your arms
to hold/clutch/grip/grasp/clasp/hang on to sth
to hold/cling/hang on
to hold/clutch/clasp sb/sth to you
to hold/hold on to/cling to/clutch/grip/grasp/clasp/hang on to sb/sth tightly
to hold/hold on to/cling to/clutch/grip/grasp/clasp sb/sth firmly
to hold/hold on to/clutch/grip/clasp/hang on to sb/sth tight

Example Bank:
This view is not widely held.
deeply held religious beliefs
privately held views
Applicants must hold a full driving licence.
Eight people were held hostage for four months.
Employees do not have access to personal records held on computer.
He has very firmly-held religious beliefs.
He held her by the shoulders.
He was born in South Africa but he holds a British passport.
I don't think that branch will hold your weight.
I held the baby gently in my arms.
I still hold that the government's economic policies are mistaken.
It's impossible to hold a conversation with all this noise.
Parents will be held responsible for their children's behaviour.
Police are holding two men in connection with last Thursday's bank raid.
She is held in high regard by her students.
She was held captive in a castle.
The captain held the trophy in the air.
The company has held the advertising contract since 2005.
The girl held her father's hand tightly.
The next conference will be held in Ohio.
They walked along the street, holding hands.
Idioms: catch/get/grab/take hold of somebody get hold of somebody get hold of something hold good hold it no holds barred on hold take hold there is no holding somebody
Derived:hold back hold forth hold off hold on hold on to somebody hold on to something hold onto something hold out hold out for something hold out on somebody hold out something hold somebody back hold somebody down hold somebody off hold somebody to something hold somebody up hold something against somebody hold something back hold something down hold something in hold something on hold something out hold something over hold something over somebody hold something together hold together hold up hold up something hold with something
 
noun  
 
WITH HAND
1. singular, uncountable the action of holding sb/sth; the way you are holding sb/sth
Syn: grip
His hold on her arm tightened.
She tried to keep hold of the child's hand.
Make sure you've got a steady hold on the camera.  
 
IN SPORT
2. countable a particular way of holding sb, especially in a sport such as ↑wrestling or in a fight
The wrestler put his opponent into a head hold.
The exercise called for the recruits to get out of various holds.  
 
POWER/CONTROL
3. singular ~ (on/over sb/sth) influence, power or control over sb/sth
What she knew about his past gave her a hold over him.
He struggled to get a hold of his anger.
see also stranglehold  
 
IN CLIMBING
4. countable a place where you can put your hands or feet when climbing
She put her foot firmly in the hold and pulled herself up.
see also foothold, ↑handhold, ↑toehold  
 
ON SHIP/PLANE
5. countable the part of a ship or plane where the goods being carried are stored
more at get (hold of) the wrong end of the stick at wrong adj.

Word Origin:
v. and n. senses 1 to 4 Old English haldan healdan Germanic Dutch houden German halten Old Norse hald ‘hold, support, custody’ n. sense 5 late 16th cent. holl Old English hol holian Germanic Dutch hol ‘cave’ ‘hollow’ German hohl ‘hollow’ Indo-European ‘cover, conceal’ -d ↑hold

Example Bank:
He kept a firm hold on my hand.
He lost his hold on the rock and was swept away by the tide.
He no longer had any hold over her.
He still had me in a tight hold.
He still has a firm hold on the party.
He tightened his hold on her.
Her hold on power was now quite tenuous.
She finally released her hold on me.
Take hold of the handle and give it a hard pull.
The allies lost their hold on northern France.
The allies lost their hold on the south of the country.
This had weakened his hold on power.
an attempt to break the hold of the Church
She tried to keep hold of the child's hand.

 

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